'Medieval' Queens of England!:
[This is just a little something I did to display the lovely artwork I found of these wonderful queens (courtesy of http://womenshistory.about.com/ but I don’t know if they found the artwork elsewhere!)]
From left to right:
1. Matilda of Scotland (c. 1080 – 1 May 1118), born Edith, was the first wife and Queen consort of Henry I of England.
2. Eleanor of Aquitaine (in French: Aliénor d’Aquitaine, Éléonore de Guyenne) (1122 or 1124 – 1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages. As well as being Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, she was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and of England (1154–1189). She was the patroness of such literary figures as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-Maure, and Bernart de Ventadorn.
3. Marguerite ‘Margaret’ of France (November 1157 – August/September 1197) was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile. She was married to Henry the Young King of England on 2 November 1160. Her husband became co-ruler with his father in 1170. For unknown reasons, Margaret was not crowned along with her husband on 14 July 1170, an omission that greatly angered her father. In order to please the French King, Henry II had his son and Margaret crowned together in Winchester Cathedral on 27 August 1172.
4. Berengaria of Navarre (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère; c. 1165–1170 – 23 December 1230) was Queen of the English as the wife of King Richard I of England. She was the eldest daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre and Sancha of Castile. As is the case with many of the medieval queens consort of the Kingdom of England, relatively little is known of her life. The early 20th Century Cunard passenger liner RMS Berengaria was named in her honour, the first Cunard ship to be named for a British queen.
5. Isabella of Angoulême (French: Isabelle d’Angoulême; c.1188 – 31 May 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John’s death in 1216. She had five children by the king including his heir, later Henry III. In 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, by whom she had another nine children.
6. Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 – 24/25 June 1291) was Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Henry III of England from 1236 until his death in 1272.
Although she was completely devoted to her husband, and staunchly defended him against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, she was very much hated by the Londoners. This was because she had brought a large number of relatives with her to England in her retinue; these were known as “the Savoyards”, and they were given influential positions in the government and realm. On one occasion, Eleanor’s barge was attacked by angry citizens who pelted her with stones, mud, pieces of paving, rotten eggs and vegetables.
Eleanor was the mother of five children including the future King Edward I of England. She also was renowned for her cleverness, skill at writing poetry, and as a leader of fashion.
7. Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 28 November 1290) was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband.
8. Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-wolf of France, was Queen consort of England as the wife of Edward II of England. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills and intelligence.
9. Philippa of Hainault or, Philippe (d’Avesnes) de Hainaut (24 June 1314 – 15 August 1369) was the Queen consort of King Edward III of England. Edward, Duke of Guyenne, her future husband, promised in 1326 to marry her within the following two years. She was married to Edward, first by proxy, when Edward dispatched the Bishop of Coventry ”to marry her in his name” in Valenciennes (second city in importance of the county of Hainaut) in October 1327. The marriage was celebrated formally in York Minster Cathedral on 24 January 1328, some months after Edward’s accession to the throne of England. In August 1328, he also fixed his wife’s dowry.
Philippa acted as regent on several occasions when her husband was away from his kingdom and she often accompanied him on his expeditions to Scotland, France, and Flanders. Philippa won much popularity with the English people for her kindness and compassion, which were demonstrated in 1347 when she successfully persuaded King Edward to spare the lives of the Burghers of Calais. It was this popularity that helped maintain peace in England throughout Edward’s long reign. The eldest of her fourteen children was Edward, the Black Prince, who became a renowned military leader. Philippa died at the age of fifty-five from an illness closely related to dropsy. The Queen’s College, Oxford was founded in her honour.
10. Anne of Bohemia (11 May 1366 – 7 June 1394) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Richard II. A member of the House of Luxembourg, she was the eldest daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and Elizabeth of Pomerania.
11. Isabella of Valois (9 November 1389 – 13 September 1409) was a Princess of France, daughter of King Charles VI and Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. She was queen consort of Richard II, King of England, from 1396 to 1399.
12. Joan of Navarre (c. 1370 – 10 June 1437) was a Duchess consort of Brittany and a Queen consort of England. She was the regent of Brittany from 1399 until 1403 during the minority of her son. She was a daughter of King Charles II of Navarre and Joan of France. Her maternal grandparents were John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. Through marriage she was the Duchess consort of Brittany and later the Queen consort of England when she wed King Henry IV of England.
13. Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. She was the daughter of King Charles VI of France, wife of Henry V of Monmouth, King of England, mother of Henry VI, King of England and King of France, and through her secret marriage with Owen Tudor, the grandmother of King Henry VII of England. Catherine’s older sister, Isabella of Valois, was Queen consort of England from 1396–1399, as the child bride of King Richard II of England.
14. Margaret of Anjou (French: Marguerite d’Anjou) (23 March 1430 – 25 August 1482) was the wife of King Henry VI of England. As such, she was Queen consort of England from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. She also claimed to be Queen consort of France from 1445 to 1453. Born in the Duchy of Lorraine, into the House of Valois-Anjou, Margaret was the second eldest daughter of René I of Naples and Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine.
She was one of the principal figures in the series of dynastic civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses and at times personally led the Lancastrian faction. Due to her husband’s frequent bouts of insanity, Margaret ruled the kingdom in his place. It was she who called for a Great Council in May 1455 that excluded the Yorkist faction headed by Richard, Duke of York, and thus provided the spark that ignited a civil conflict that lasted for over thirty years, decimated the old nobility of England, and caused the deaths of thousands of men, including her only son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471.
Margaret was taken prisoner by the victorious Yorkists after the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury. In 1475, she was ransomed by her cousin, King Louis XI of France. She went to live in France as a poor relation of the French king, and she died there at the age of 52.
15. Elizabeth Woodville (also spelled Wydeville or Widvile; c. 1437 – 8 June 1492) was Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483. Elizabeth was a key figure in the series of dynastic civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses. Her first husband, Sir John Grey of Groby was killed at the Second Battle of St Albans. As the daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, she was the first commoner to marry an English sovereign. It was because of this that Edward’s former staunch ally Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, known to history as “The Kingmaker” switched his allegiance to the House of Lancaster. Her children included the Princes in the Tower and Elizabeth of York; the latter made her the maternal grandmother of Henry VIII. Tradition holds that she served as a Maid of Honour to Margaret of Anjou, but the evidence of this is uncertain.
16. Anne Neville of Warwick (11 June 1456 – 16 March 1485) was Princess of Wales as the wife of Edward of Westminster and Queen of England as the consort of King Richard III. She held the latter title for less than two years, from 26 June 1483 until her death in March 1485. She had just one son, Edward, whom she outlived.
Anne was a member of the powerful northern English Neville family, being the younger daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, called in history, “The Kingmaker”. As a result of this, she was used to strengthen the alliance between her father and Margaret of Anjou during the dynastic civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses fought between the houses of York and Lancaster.
Queen Ingrid of Denmark
10 facts about The Duchess of Cambridge
- She is related to U.S. General George S. Patton, most known for his command of the Seventh United States Army, and later the Third United States Army, in the European Theater of World War II.
- Catherine attended an English language nursery school in Amman, Jordan, before moving back to Berkshire with her family.
- Although Kate could have a private chef at her disposal, she prefers to do the majority of the cooking for herself and William.
- As a young child, Kate performed in a play in which she was a young lady wooed by a young, handsome blond prince named William.
- In 2001, Kate enrolled at the University of St Andrews in Scotland. She graduated with a 2:1 in History of Art in 2005.
- In keeping with the “something blue” tradition on her wedding day, Kate had a blue ribbon sewn into her Alexander McQueen dress.
- Kate is a huge fan of Downton Abbey. Allen Leech, who plays Tom Branson in the hit period drama, reveals that Prince William told him he and Kate regularly watch the period drama.
- The Duchess is six months older than her husband, the Duke of Cambridge.
- The Duchess enjoys trying recipes fromGreat British Bake Off star Mary Berry. “I’m a big fan of your cook books and your cakes,” Kate told the popular celebrity baker during an event in March 2013.
- On January 23, Kate became the ‘thousand-day Duchess’ as she marked a thousand days since she married Prince William at Westminster Abbey.
10 facts about Queen Maxima of the Netherlands
- When her husband, King Willem Alexander, became King of the Netherlands on 30 April 2013, she became the first Dutch queen consort since Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont who held that title from 1879 until 1890.
- Paternally, Queen Maxima is a descendant of King Alfonso III of Portugal, and other noble families of the Iberian Peninsula.
- The queen speaks four languages: Spanish, English, Dutch and French.
- She graduated with a degree in economics form the Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina.
- After graduating from university, she worked for large financial companies in Argentina, New York, and Brussels.
- Maxima was granted Dutch citizenship by Royal Decree on 17 May 2001, and now has a dual citizenship: Argentine and Dutch.
- Maxima is one of the few royals to openly support gay rights, and was the first one to attend an LGBT rights conference on 5 March 2008.
- Her Majesty currently serves as the United Nations Secretary General’s Special Advocate for Inclusive Finance for Development.
- She is the first Dutch queen consort to have been born a commoner.
- The Queen is also the first Dutch queen consort born outside of Europe.
“In a small room with close members of the family, then she is just a normal grandmother. Very relaxed.”
[The prospect of becoming King is] a subject I don’t intend to talk to him about. It’s not fair to him, and it’s damaging for a child to grow up thinking like that. I tell him, ‘If you want to succeed in life, you have to work, you have to prove yourself, you have to treat people the right way.’ My husband is the best example of someone who grew up not thinking he was going to be king, and it made him a real person, a human being people can easily relate to. He grew up making real friends, having real relationships, experiencing what it was like getting summer jobs, what it’s like to get into fights, what it’s like to share a room in boarding school. If you grow up sheltered, you pay a price. And there’s nothing right now that makes me think my son will be king. We have a crown prince, and that’s that.
Queen Marie of Romania with her daughter Ileana and niece Kira.